(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20\i Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2586\margr2684\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2586\margrsxn2684\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1584\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa646\tx4651 \f2\fs20\i{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 JUSTICE{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-15 79}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2586\margrsxn2684\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw6694\colsr118\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0\tx6648 \f2\fs20\i{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 e \i Smritis \i0 generally enumerate eighteen causes of\line \expndtw10 s, such as debts, sales without adequate title,\line \expndtw2 >f boundaries, partition, non-payment of wages,\line \expndtw13 of contract, partnership, adultery, violence,\line \expndtw9 , larceny, robbery, etc. Thus, there were both\line \expndtw2 of cases \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  civil\super 1\nosupersub  and criminal. Those accused\line \expndtw7 >ected of theft had to prove their innocence by\line \expndtw5 : ordeal, or sometimes both were combined.\line \expndtw1 nentions only two kinds of ordeal, fire and water\line \expndtw6 114), but Yajaavalkya and Narada add three\line \expndtw-3 -scales, ploughshare, and poison \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  , and in the \i Bri-\line \expndtw2 mriti \i0 the list mounts to nine varieties. Punish-\line \expndtw18 inflicted or recommended are severe. For\line \expndtw1 e, a cow-lifter had his nose cut off; and one who\line \expndtw11 lore than ten "kumbhas" of grain or silver or\line \super\expndtw5 r\nosupersub as executed (VIII, 320, 321). Any kind of trea-\line \i\expndtw13 ^ \i0 conduct was usually visited with the death\line \i\expndtw7 r. \i0 A Brahman, if found guilty, suffered ex-\line \expndtw2 anication, losing all right to inheritance. Indeed,\line \expndtw5 lays down that whatever crime a Brahman may\line \expndtw11 it, he should never be killed but only exiled\line \expndtw13 380). At the same time, however, it may be\line \expndtw8 ed that for a similar offence Manu prescribes a\line \expndtw4 F one \i Kdrsapana \i0 only for a commoner and one\line \expndtw9 .nd in the case of a king (VIII, 336). This was\line \expndtw3 )s in accordance with the principle that the more\line \expndtw23 it, influential, and knowing a man is, the\line \expndtw7 r should his punishment be.\line \expndtw2 i civil law, the later \i Smritis \i0 treat of contracts and\line \expndtw8 ss partnerships \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  an idea not quite known to\line \expndtw4 :lier works and the \i Sutras. \i0 Manu speaks only of\line \expndtw-1 us partnership \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  Brahmans sharing fees \i (daksina){\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i0\expndtw0 i}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20\i{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 iciating together in a ceremony, but Yajnavalkya}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb307\sa0 \f2\fs20\i{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 lot unoften civil litigation was avoided by arbitration.}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb7529\sa0 \f2\fs20\i{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 M.}\par }